The transformation process of converting non-numeric data and features into numerical representations suitable for consumption by machine learning algorithms. This conversion is essential as most machine learning algorithms expect numerical vector representations to operate effectively. An example of vectorization is converting text data, such as sentences, into a bag-of-words vector, where each word is represented by a numeric value indicating its frequency or presence in the text. Vectorization enables algorithms to process and analyze diverse types of data, facilitating tasks like classification, regression, and clustering across various domains.