Formal Logic

Also known as symbolic or mathematical logic, formal logic is the study of deductively valid inferences or logical truths. It abstracts the content of propositions, statements, or assertively used sentences and deductive arguments to focus on their structures or logical forms.

Symbolic artificial intelligence represents intelligence using abstract symbolic representations and precise logical rules, which are the core elements of formal logic.

As such, formal logic is a subset of symbolic AI like LLMs are a subset of machine learning.