Pertains to the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature, scope, and limits of knowledge. It explores questions such as: How do we know what we know? What is the nature of knowledge? What are the criteria for something to be considered knowledge? Epistemology examines the justification of beliefs, the sources of knowledge, and the rationality of belief formation. It’s a fundamental concept in philosophy, particularly in fields like epistemology of science, epistemology of religion, and epistemology of mathematics.