Cyber-Physical-Social Systems (CPSS)

Extend Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) by incorporating human elements into the framework. These systems, prevalent in today’s AI-driven and ubiquitous computing landscape, integrate cyber, physical, and social components. CPSS are omnipresent in everyday life, manifesting in innovations like smart vehicles, Internet of Things (IoT), and augmented reality (AR). In industry, they drive advancements such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Digital Twins, optimizing processes and enhancing productivity. Additionally, CPSS play crucial roles in defense applications, including augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR), avionics, and strategic operation methodologies like kill chains. This integration of human factors enriches system capabilities, fostering more adaptive, responsive, and context-aware functionalities across diverse domains.